An Overview of Title 29 of the CFR

The United States Code of Federal Regulations comprises fifty titles. Title 29 covers Labor, and it is used by various federal agencies to deal with labor issues across the country.

The first several chapters of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 29 cover management standards monitored by the Department of Labor, including the operation of labor organizations (unions), attention to employee rights, the protection of migrant workers, rules regarding student employees and workers with disabilities, child labor laws, and much more.

The twelfth chapter is dedicated to the work of the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is known for its standards in protecting workers on the job. It outlines rules surrounding health and safety inspections, the reporting of occupational injuries, and more.

The remaining chapters deal with the rules and regulations within the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, as well as the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. These chapters, of course, are aimed at protecting American pensions

Federal Register

Federal register is United States federal government official journal which entails proposed rules, public notice, executive orders, proclamations as well as government agency rules and presidential documents. The first production of the federal register was on March 16th, 1936. By 1946, the administrative procedure act requested for publication of rule-making information in the federal register. The federal register is published on a daily basis (excluding federal holidays) by The Records Administration Office Of The Federal Register and The National Archives.
The printing of the federal register is done by The Government Publishing Office (GPO), and The Office Of The Federal Register does the compilation.
The federal register is a public domain and the United States government work; therefore, there are no copyright restrictions. Federal register entails The government uses the federal register to convey changes to the public regarding guidance policies as well as government requirements.

The Federal register includes:
• Final rules
• Suggested rules and regulations of interest to the citizen
• Presidential documents
• Executive orders

New suggested rules, as well as final rules, are always available to the public in the federal register. A proposal notice of rule-making usually requires public comments concerning a suggested rule and notifies the public on where the public meeting will be held for the rule discussion. Moreover, the public comments, as well as texts on the final rule, are available in the federal register for the public.

Categorization of the federal register
There are four categories available in the federal register;
•Rules and regulations. This section entails policies and rules interpretations.
•Notices : This is where meeting and planning for hearings are available to the public.
•Presidential documents which include proclamations and executive orders.
•Proposed rules which entail petitions and advance proposals.

Final rules or proposed rules in the federal register and are republished and codified into law in the code of federal regulations (CFR). Furthermore, the rules are rearranged by subject matter and topics for easy access to regulations at the code of federal regulations sections affected.
Availability of the federal register
Since the year 1994, the federal register has been available online. Within the United States, federal depository libraries receive copies of the federal register whereas for those outside the United States may receive copies from major libraries. For easy public access to the rule-making plans, the government established eRulemaking in the year 2003. The public can use the website regulations.gov to participate in the rule-making process as well as provides online comments that are addressed directly to those in charge of outlining the rule-making.
Citizens should read the federal register for them to know their rights as well as obligations. Furthermore, anyone can use the federal register if their business is under the federal agency or anyone who would like to know the operations carried out day to day by the federal government. While looking for information in the federal register, there is a table of content that is arranged alphabetically hence will help you in finding the section you need quickly. In case of questions concerning a rule or a proposed rule, there is a contact available for the agency official. A notice is sent to the public during proposal of new rule-making, and any person or organization may participate through direct commenting via eRulemaking, writing or orally during hearings.

SEC Prospectus [Rule 424(b)(1)]

SEC Prospectus Rule 424B1 is the prospectus form that is filed by a company if there are amended articles or changes to their prospectus therein. A company would also file this when there is any new or forgotten information on the original prospectus, thus correcting before finalization.
With the 1933 Securities act, investors are now able to make better financial decisions based on what a company actually tells the public. The act required securities issuers to file and complete statements of registration about financial and material information that the public investors may need know before buying in. These are filed with the SEC before they are available for purchase by the public, namely ten copies of a relevant prospectus including: The companies Ticker symbol, what the company plans to do after their IPO, the number and types of shares they offer, their last reported price, and a few others.
This relevant prospectus will also include how an investor could go about gaining more information about the company, so there is no hidden information or lack of information being volunteered by the company. Things such as finances, share volume, and even amendments to previous prospectus articles. The companies last annual report, (if they have one), will also be included in the list of information that should be easily found by the investor if needed.
As well, the form should include information on experts who prepared the prospectus and other files. These experts are also verified by the SEC and are on file to be contacted should the need arise. Before these forms existed there were instances of companies who’s prospectus would change without anyone knowing or being contacted about it, as well as companies not displaying certain information about themselves. In order to make a level playing field for everyone, this has been done away with by this act and the form itself.

SEC Form 485BPOS Overview

The specific form 485BPOS is actually not a form, or an original filing itself, but an amendment to a previous filing. This amendment corrected further oversights on the 1940 SEC filing act and was the second one processed on said act. The form therein is structured towards a filing by investment companies or a significant security offering. Below is amendment the form is tailored toward.

This forms purpose is to arrange and layout complete details of investment strategies by an investment company. By the same token, the form must also state all security offerings the company has lined up, in the same style, and is a registration statement required for filing separate accounts.
A separate account is when an investor is seeking to manage a financial institution or an individual pool of assets. Typically this is done through a financial advisor, brokerage firm, or institution; for example an insurance company or credit union. Normally sought out by affluent customers and high net worth investors because of the high-risk high reward process that the service normally uses to ensure customers continue to receive a note of good news when they check their accounts.
This is a very popular asset strategy right now, as separate accounts often entail giving a high net worth individual title and ownership of an account that they fund, then hand the account off to an investment specialist or financial advisor who then has the discretion of what and when to trade.
These accounts are highly regulated and are overseen by specialists due to the nature of these investments being rather risky and often employ riskier strategies to find high yields. Other requirements such as a minimum investment limit make it just a little harder to obtain these types of accounts, and therefore the SEC is better able to keep them regulated and fair.

SEC Form 13F-NT Overview

In the capital and securities market, there are many different types of forms and documents used. One important form is the SEC Form 13-NFT. If you are reading this, chances are you want to know what this form is. In that respect, this article describes this important federal document in-depth. It entails the definition of the SEC Form 13-NFT form and what this form consists of.

SEC Form 13F-NT Definition

SEC Form 13f-NT is a quarterly report filed by institutional investment managers to the SEC in accordance to SEC regulations. In this case, SEC stands for “Securities and Exchange Commission.” In the United States, this is an independent federal agency that is charged with protecting investors, maintaining fair as well as orderly functioning of securities markets and aiding capital formation.

SEC Form 13F-NT Components

This form consists of three parts:

  1. The Cover Page—this includes the calendar year or quarter ended, amendment details if there are some, as well as name and address of the institutional investment manager filing the report. It also includes the name, title and phone number of the person singing this report on behalf of the reporting manager. Lastly, the page also comprises names, titles, and phone numbers of other managers reporting for this manager.
  2. The Information Table—this consists of eight columns into which various details are entered. Columns 1, 2, 3 and 4 have the name of security issuers, the title of each class of security, CUSIP and the values of the securities respectively. Columns 5, 6,7 and 8, on the other hand, require share or PRN amount, investment discretion, other managers and voting authority(sole, shared or none) respectively.
  3. The Summary Page—this page literally summarizes the entire document. It condenses the entire information, including Form 13 F information table entry total, down to a few paragraphs.

    Final Thoughts

    The SEC Form 13F-NT is an important report that some institutional investment managers will have to file with the Securities Exchange Commission quarterly. It is a requirement by the federal government that all institutional managers that manage equity assets of at least $100 million in value fill and submit this form to the SEC according to the number of times stipulated by the law.

SEC Form 424B3 Overview

  • The United State’s Security and Exchange Commission is an independent federal agency that regulates the process of issuing stocks or bonds to investors by companies as a way of financing the businesses. Before a company kicks off the stocks or bonds offer process, the agency requires that the company files a document known as SEC FORM 424B3.

    What Is SEC FORM 424B3?

    First of all, businesses often issue a document called a prospectus to the public when they are about to offer stocks, bonds or other securities to investors. A prospectus is simply a type of business document that provides facts and details about the business to potential investors. Of course, new events may occur after that, which may lead to new facts and details about the particular company, which are not in the public domain yet.

    That is where SEC FORM 424B3 comes in. This is a prospectus that the Securities and Exchange Commission requires businesses to file with them prior to kicking off the process of issuing bonds and stocks to the public. That is if new events have occurred, leading to new information about the company, which is not contained in the previous prospectus.

    SEC FORM 424B3 FAQs

    Is it a requirement that companies file SEC FORM 424B3, before selling stocks and bonds to investors? The answer is “NO”. The Securities and Exchange Commission requires companies to file the form only if after issuing a prospectus to the public, new events occurred, which resulted in a substantive change from the supplied information.

    What are the components of SEC FORM 424B3? The components of this form are:

  • The proposed offerings.
  • The risk factors involved in this investment.
  • How the company intends to use the proceeds.
  • The proposed dividend policy.
  • Description of Capital Stock.
  • How the company will conduct bond or stock sales.
  • The plan of bond or stock distribution.
  • Legal affairs.
    Can I file the form alone without professional aid? Yes of course! Simply go to sec.gov and follow the instructions. However, it is better to let a professional do that for you to save time and avoid making mistakes.

    Final Thoughts

    The SEC Form 424B3 is an important prospectus that businesses need to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission under certain circumstances. While you can file it alone, it is always better to let an expert do that for you. That way, you save time and avoid errors that could prove to be too costly in the end.

SEC Filing: Trust Indenture Act of 1939

The 1939 SEC Filing of the Trust Indenture Act (TIA), is a federal law that added restrictions and security to bonds valued at certain amounts. Specifically, it states that there must be a written formal agreement or “indenture”, for any bond sale of $5 million or more. The indenture must be signed by both the bondholder, as well as the issuer. At the same time, the act requires a trustee be appointed for every bond issued therein. This way the rights of the bondholder are not compromised at any time during the process.

This act was mainly passed for the protection of bond investors. It ensures that the trustee has no conflict of interest with the issuer, and to announce twice yearly certain information to investors and securities holders. By having a fair legal and binding contract between the bondholder and the issuer, with a trustee there as an unbiased third party to help oversee the legality and equality for both parties.

The document itself must be read and approved by the SEC and must highlight all the terms and conditions that the trustee, issuer and lender need to abide by for the duration of the bond life. As well, any extra covenants, such as call or put provisions must be outlined in this document; as to allow all parties to be aware of the terms that are set to happen during the bonds life. In the event of insolvency (when an organization can no longer meet its financial obligations), the trustee is given rights to seize and sell the issuers assets to reclaim the investment made. This gives the investor a little more of a safety net in cases such as bankruptcy or fraud within invested securities as well.

Before this act it would be very easy to buy into a very big security while not really knowing all the small nuances that can take place within this type of deal. This act requires there be a fair written contract with a trustee and approved by the SEC along with every provision therein, so all parties are aware of what kind of contract they are entering into.

ANATEL — Brazil’s National Telcom Agency

ANATEL Wireless Certification

Brazil’s Agency of National Telecommunication is a very active institute which keeps working hard to make sure that all devices are registered and there are no or least possible cybercrimes. This is what has made them develop ANATEL identifiers which analyze the devices and then certify them to give them a green signal. ANATEL wireless certification is modern, well put together and highly technological, so it covers most aspects, making sure that the certified consumer products have a high quality and the longest possible life. For this, ANTEL identifiers have many manuals, SAR levels, test reports, and user manuals. Now let’s see what ANATEL wireless certification is all about in detail.

ANATEL certifies many devices which are of use to people in their daily life matters. From a simple phone to complex signal generators, ANATEL has applications and software to certify and identify most devices which we have to use very often. Here are some of the devices that ANATEL deals with:

  • Cellphones of all kinds including the smartphones.
  • ANATEL includes the radio devices which are around for a while, including transceivers, cordless phones, and
  • Mobile and other devices’ accessories to ensure that even the smaller but important device accessories are all good to use as well. These accessories include connectors, cables, battery chargers, antenna, batteries, and wireless cards etc.
  • Fixed telecommunication channel creating and mediating devices.
  • Networking equipment like modems which catch and then further provide signals to your devices.
  • IP Phones are identified and certified by ANATEL. There use is increasing day by day.

The basic job that ANATEL performs is that it as to look into the details and functioning of devices very closely. This way ANATEL analyzes the products of consumer use and other devices in depth and then it can provide certification and documents for the devices in a more reliable and efficient manner. ANATEL has to review all the documents which come with a device and then it provides a certificate of homologation to ensure that the telecommunications are as effective and foolproof as they can be. There is no intervention from other companies, institutes or people in power in ANATEL’s wireless certification proceedings which makes the process even quicker, reliable and within your immediate access.

ANATEL keeps checking on medically related wireless as well since they are a major part of life too. For that, they have brought in a project named ANVISA which keeps a vigilant eye on the manufacturing, running, and maintenance of medical regulatory devices. ANATEL also has webinars to let people into the loop and describe things to them so that they know how their devices are regulated and monitored. The device developers are also taken into consideration as they need to know what requirements they have to meet. This makes sure that all parties concerned are well aware of the way that things progress. The authorities at ANATEL are highly functional and vigilant, which is why they have such effective control over things.

EMC Test for SDDPI Approval in Indonesia

The talks about mandatory EMC certification for various wireless products has been going on in Indonesia since September of 2018. In fact, as the new regulations came from SDDPI in August the issue of EMC certification was in circulation. However, because of lack of proper clarification from SDDPI the issue has been very confusing with respect to the type of devices that need EMC certifications and those that don’t. In September a notification from SDDPI somewhat cleared the confusion and a list of products was releases according to which wireless products such as mobile phones and tablets had to submit an ERC test report while they were applying for SDDPI certification. But this list was still not cleared and it was not clearly mentioned which products needed this test and which did not.

After some time, another notification came from the SDDPI officers that stated that EMC test results will be mandatory for only the devices which require EMC tests within their local regulatory bodies. For example, if any device based on Bluetooth technology requires an EMC test to pass the local regulatory body then that product must submit an EMC test report to SDDPI for certification. But even after that when the SDDPI regulations were checked we found out that it was very ambiguous and with a lot of concrete information missing. There was no mention of any specific EMC standard. The only thing that was mentioned was that the measurement results from the EMC test should exceed the level where they become electromagnetically harming for the human body. So once again the regulations were not clear and a lot of confusion was in the minds of people who were looking to get their devices certified by SDDPI in Indonesia.

In the middle of all this confusion, another notification came from SDDPI which stated that any electronic wireless device that is being used in close proximity had to go through the obligatory EMC testing to get the SDDPI certificate. These devices include mobile phones, laptops, tablets, mobile computers, watches, wearable devices, earphones etc. These are all the devices that if they have a high electromagnetic rating, they can harm the human body. As soon as this notification came people thought that they have a clearer vision now about the whole certification fiasco but once again they were proved wrong by the SDDPI officers. The information was changed suddenly before any confirmation of the previous news. This is the latest information that has been communicated by the SDDPI officers and is considered to be the final form of regulation of EMC testing for wireless devices for SDDPI certification. According to the latest information that was released in October, EMC testing was applied mandatory on all the wireless devices except Module, Base Station Transceiver (BTS) and Microwave Antenna. Other than the three devices mentioned before any other wireless device that is planning to apply to SDDPI for certification has to go through the mandatory EMC testing.

 

Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission

BTRC known as Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ টেলিযোগাযোগ নিয়ন্ত্রণ কমিশন) is responsible for establishing, operating, regulating, maintaining telecommunication establishments and providing various telecom services and keeping all the telecommunication systems in Bangladesh in check. It was started although it was criticized by Human rights in March 2013 for blocking various atheist website and blog posts.

They give license to the companies who are willing to do business using Telecommunication, Broadband Internet and Wireless Transmission sectors.

The BTRC was formed on 31st January of 2002, under the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Act 2001 with the vision “At least 10 telephones per 100 inhabitants by 2010”. Apart from all these administrative roles in telecommunication they also play a key role in the satellite department as the latest satellite Bangabandhu-1 that is the first state owned satellite in Bangladesh.

Types of the Existing wireless broadcasting system in Bangladesh:

There are several methods used for broadcasting in electronic media. The methods supported by BTRC are :

  1.  Terrestrial Television Broadcasting
  2. Satellite Television Broadcasting
  3. FM Radio Broadcasting
  4. Community Radio Broadcasting

For Terrestrial Television Broadcasting, Bangladesh Television(BTV) holds the only access and it is protected by Bangladeshi Law. BTV is using 174-230 MHz spectrum in VHF band although VHF band I requested to be turned off. It may be transferred to NFAP, 522-698 MHz spectrums in future.

Satellite Television broadcasting: is regulated by the Minister of Information(MoI) but the spectrum is assigned from BTRC after they are good to go with rules and regulation. So far They have given spectrum to 28 channels and they are using 6,9 or 12 MHz frequency.

FM Radio Broadcasting: FM Radio Broadcasting permission also given by the Ministry of Information(MoI). According to the list of 2015, there are 28 radio stations that have been given permission by the ministry of information and 25 of them excluding the state-owned radio station (Bangladesh Betar) has been assigned spectrum by BTRC.

Bangladesh Betar has its headquarter in Sher e Bangla Nagar, Agargaon

Here is the list of privately owned radio stations and their description:

Community Radio Broadcasting Its good to know that community radio station are also growing now in Bangladesh after the initiative of BNNRC with the ministry of information. Under the policy of Broadcasting and operation policy 2008, Sixteen(16) community radio has been approved. To ensure the free flow of information to the people, the government enacted the Right to Information Act 2009.Currently, the output power of community radio transmitter is 100 WATT and it covers roughly 17 Kilometer but it going to be developed to 250 WATT very soon. Also a there is a plan to cover the whole country under the spectrum, which are 98.40MHz, 98.80MHz and 99.20MHz.

Here is the list of community radios in Bangladesh:

How Companies and people can get a license?

For all of these 4 type of broadcasting license is given by the Ministry of information (Mol).

After getting awarded license from Ministry of information (Mol).

The licensee has to apply for assigning frequency and import Earth Station and SNG/DSNG equipment and after getting the frequency they can use, for broadcast and transmission they are on the next step to set up their situation with radio equipment for that they have to import the equipment which they can do easily after the grant of frequency from BTRC

What types of Band Assigned by BTRC?

Band Assigned by BTRC:

  • For Satellite Television: According to NFAP, the frequency is assigned from BTRC to the licensee, 6/9/12 MHz uplink frequency from 5.85-6.425 GHz band.
  • FM/Community Radio: According to NFAP, the frequency is assigned from BTRC to the licensee from 87.5 to 108 MHz

What Documents needed to be submitted for the process and application?

Documents to be submitted with the application:

Applicant(s) shall furnish the following information/documents as is applicable:

  1. Letter of application (in letterhead pad and application to the

Chairman of BTRC and attention to the Director, Spectrum Division)

  1. Application Form (duly filled in, furnished, signed and sealed)

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  1. Copy of License from MoI. (Attested)
  2. Copy of Brochure (General Specification) of requested radio equipment (Attested)
  3. Copy of Trade License (Attested)
  4. For limited Company: Copy of Memorandum of Association and Article of Association (Attested)
  5. For public owner: Copy of Proprietorship Certificate (Attested)

What do after application submission?

After getting the application with the proper documents, the Commission will place the application to the Spectrum Management Committee (SMC) for their opinion. The SMC recommends the proposal to the Commission. It is worth mentioning that the sole responsibility of assigning spectrum belongs to the commission. According to the decision of the commission, the spectrum is assigned to the applicant.

Test Transmission Report:

After getting the prior permission from the Commission to use the assigned frequency for 7 days test. The licensee shall have to submit the test transmission report to the Commission. The Inspection team of BTRC will inspect the broadcast method of the organization. The Commission, upon inspection report, will award the License to Operate Radio Communications Equipment to the licensee.

The licensee(s) have to renew the license yearly,