“convert” usage, flags, help, changelog, and readme

Usage: convert [options …] file [ [options …] file …] [options …] file

Image Settings:
-adjoin join images into a single multi-image file
-affine matrix affine transform matrix
-alpha option activate, deactivate, reset, or set the alpha channel
-antialias remove pixel-aliasing
-authenticate password
decipher image with this password
-attenuate value lessen (or intensify) when adding noise to an image
-background color background color
-bias value add bias when convolving an image
use black point compensation
-blue-primary point chromaticity blue primary point
-bordercolor color border color
-caption string assign a caption to an image
-channel type apply option to select image channels
-clip-mask filename associate a clip mask with the image
-colors value preferred number of colors in the image
-colorspace type alternate image colorspace
-comment string annotate image with comment
-compose operator set image composite operator
-compress type type of pixel compression when writing the image
-define format:option
define one or more image format options
-delay value display the next image after pausing
-density geometry horizontal and vertical density of the image
-depth value image depth
-direction type render text right-to-left or left-to-right
-display server get image or font from this X server
-dispose method layer disposal method
-dither method apply error diffusion to image
-encoding type text encoding type
-endian type endianness (MSB or LSB) of the image
-family name render text with this font family
-fill color color to use when filling a graphic primitive
-filter type use this filter when resizing an image
-font name render text with this font
-format “string” output formatted image characteristics
-fuzz distance colors within this distance are considered equal
-gravity type horizontal and vertical text placement
-green-primary point chromaticity green primary point
-intensity method method to generate intensity value from pixel
-intent type type of rendering intent when managing the image color
-interlace type type of image interlacing scheme
-interline-spacing value
set the space between two text lines
-interpolate method pixel color interpolation method
-interword-spacing value
set the space between two words
-kerning value set the space between two letters
-label string assign a label to an image
-limit type value pixel cache resource limit
-loop iterations add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation
-mask filename associate a mask with the image
-matte store matte channel if the image has one
-mattecolor color frame color
-moments report image moments
-monitor monitor progress
-orient type image orientation
-page geometry size and location of an image canvas (setting)
-ping efficiently determine image attributes
-pointsize value font point size
-precision value maximum number of significant digits to print
-preview type image preview type
-quality value JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level
-quiet suppress all warning messages
-red-primary point chromaticity red primary point
-regard-warnings pay attention to warning messages
-remap filename transform image colors to match this set of colors
-respect-parentheses settings remain in effect until parenthesis boundary
-sampling-factor geometry
horizontal and vertical sampling factor
-scene value image scene number
-seed value seed a new sequence of pseudo-random numbers
-size geometry width and height of image
-stretch type render text with this font stretch
-stroke color graphic primitive stroke color
-strokewidth value graphic primitive stroke width
-style type render text with this font style
-support factor resize support: > 1.0 is blurry, < 1.0 is sharp
-synchronize synchronize image to storage device
-taint declare the image as modified
-texture filename name of texture to tile onto the image background
-tile-offset geometry
tile offset
-treedepth value color tree depth
-transparent-color color
transparent color
-undercolor color annotation bounding box color
-units type the units of image resolution
-verbose print detailed information about the image
-view FlashPix viewing transforms
-virtual-pixel method
virtual pixel access method
-weight type render text with this font weight
-white-point point chromaticity white point

Image Operators:
-adaptive-blur geometry
adaptively blur pixels; decrease effect near edges
-adaptive-resize geometry
adaptively resize image using ‘mesh’ interpolation
-adaptive-sharpen geometry
adaptively sharpen pixels; increase effect near edges
-alpha option on, activate, off, deactivate, set, opaque, copy
transparent, extract, background, or shape
-annotate geometry text
annotate the image with text
-auto-gamma automagically adjust gamma level of image
-auto-level automagically adjust color levels of image
-auto-orient automagically orient (rotate) image
-bench iterations measure performance
-black-threshold value
force all pixels below the threshold into black
-blue-shift factor simulate a scene at nighttime in the moonlight
-blur geometry reduce image noise and reduce detail levels
-border geometry surround image with a border of color
-bordercolor color border color
-brightness-contrast geometry
improve brightness / contrast of the image
-canny geometry detect edges in the image
-cdl filename color correct with a color decision list
-charcoal radius simulate a charcoal drawing
-chop geometry remove pixels from the image interior
-clamp keep pixel values in range (0-QuantumRange)
-clip clip along the first path from the 8BIM profile
-clip-path id clip along a named path from the 8BIM profile
-colorize value colorize the image with the fill color
-color-matrix matrix apply color correction to the image
-connected-components connectivity
connected-components uniquely labeled
-contrast enhance or reduce the image contrast
-contrast-stretch geometry
improve contrast by `stretching’ the intensity range
-convolve coefficients
apply a convolution kernel to the image
-cycle amount cycle the image colormap
-decipher filename convert cipher pixels to plain pixels
-deskew threshold straighten an image
-despeckle reduce the speckles within an image
-distort method args
distort images according to given method ad args
-draw string annotate the image with a graphic primitive
-edge radius apply a filter to detect edges in the image
-encipher filename convert plain pixels to cipher pixels
-emboss radius emboss an image
-enhance apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image
-equalize perform histogram equalization to an image
-evaluate operator value
evaluate an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression
-extent geometry set the image size
-extract geometry extract area from image
-features distance analyze image features (e.g. contrast, correlation)
-fft implements the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
-flip flip image vertically
-floodfill geometry color
floodfill the image with color
-flop flop image horizontally
-frame geometry surround image with an ornamental border
-function name parameters
apply function over image values
-gamma value level of gamma correction
-gaussian-blur geometry
reduce image noise and reduce detail levels
-geometry geometry preferred size or location of the image
-grayscale method convert image to grayscale
-hough-lines geometry
identify lines in the image
-identify identify the format and characteristics of the image
-ift implements the inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
-implode amount implode image pixels about the center
-interpolative-resize geometry
resize image using ‘point sampled’ interpolation
-kuwahara geometry edge preserving noise reduction filter
-lat geometry local adaptive thresholding
-level value adjust the level of image contrast
-level-colors color,color
level image with the given colors
-linear-stretch geometry
improve contrast by `stretching with saturation’
-liquid-rescale geometry
rescale image with seam-carving
-magnify double the size of the image with pixel art scaling
-mean-shift geometry delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in the image
-median geometry apply a median filter to the image
-mode geometry make each pixel the ‘predominant color’ of the
-modulate value vary the brightness, saturation, and hue
-monochrome transform image to black and white
-morphology method kernel
apply a morphology method to the image
-motion-blur geometry
simulate motion blur
-negate replace every pixel with its complementary color
-noise geometry add or reduce noise in an image
-normalize transform image to span the full range of colors
-opaque color change this color to the fill color
-ordered-dither NxN
add a noise pattern to the image with specific
-paint radius simulate an oil painting
-perceptible epsilon
pixel value less than |epsilon| become epsilon or
-polaroid angle simulate a Polaroid picture
-posterize levels reduce the image to a limited number of color levels
-profile filename add, delete, or apply an image profile
-quantize colorspace reduce colors in this colorspace
-radial-blur angle radial blur the image (deprecated use -rotational-blur
-raise value lighten/darken image edges to create a 3-D effect
-random-threshold low,high
random threshold the image
-region geometry apply options to a portion of the image
-render render vector graphics
-repage geometry size and location of an image canvas
-resample geometry change the resolution of an image
-resize geometry resize the image
-roll geometry roll an image vertically or horizontally
-rotate degrees apply Paeth rotation to the image
-rotational-blur angle
rotational blur the image
-sample geometry scale image with pixel sampling
-scale geometry scale the image
-segment values segment an image
-selective-blur geometry
selectively blur pixels within a contrast threshold
-sepia-tone threshold
simulate a sepia-toned photo
-set property value set an image property
-shade degrees shade the image using a distant light source
-shadow geometry simulate an image shadow
-sharpen geometry sharpen the image
-shave geometry shave pixels from the image edges
-shear geometry slide one edge of the image along the X or Y axis
-sigmoidal-contrast geometry
increase the contrast without saturating highlights or
-sketch geometry simulate a pencil sketch
-solarize threshold negate all pixels above the threshold level
-sparse-color method args
fill in a image based on a few color points
-splice geometry splice the background color into the image
-spread radius displace image pixels by a random amount
-statistic type geometry
replace each pixel with corresponding statistic from the
-strip strip image of all profiles and comments
-swirl degrees swirl image pixels about the center
-threshold value threshold the image
-thumbnail geometry create a thumbnail of the image
-tile filename tile image when filling a graphic primitive
-tint value tint the image with the fill color
-transform affine transform image
-transparent color make this color transparent within the image
-transpose flip image vertically and rotate 90 degrees
-transverse flop image horizontally and rotate 270 degrees
-trim trim image edges
-type type image type
-unique-colors discard all but one of any pixel color
-unsharp geometry sharpen the image
-vignette geometry soften the edges of the image in vignette style
-wave geometry alter an image along a sine wave
-white-threshold value
force all pixels above the threshold into white

Image Sequence Operators:
-append append an image sequence
-clut apply a color lookup table to the image
-coalesce merge a sequence of images
-combine combine a sequence of images
-compare mathematically and visually annotate the difference between an image and its reconstruction
-complex operator perform complex mathematics on an image sequence
-composite composite image
-crop geometry cut out a rectangular region of the image
-deconstruct break down an image sequence into constituent parts
-evaluate-sequence operator
evaluate an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression
-flatten flatten a sequence of images
-fx expression apply mathematical expression to an image channel(s)
-hald-clut apply a Hald color lookup table to the image
-layers method optimize, merge, or compare image layers
-morph value morph an image sequence
-mosaic create a mosaic from an image sequence
-poly terms build a polynomial from the image sequence and the corresponding
terms (coefficients and degree pairs).
-print string interpret string and print to console
-process arguments process the image with a custom image filter
-separate separate an image channel into a grayscale image
-smush geometry smush an image sequence together
-write filename write images to this file

Image Stack Operators:
-clone indexes clone an image
-delete indexes delete the image from the image sequence
-duplicate count,indexes
duplicate an image one or more times
-insert index insert last image into the image sequence
-reverse reverse image sequence
-swap indexes swap two images in the image sequence

Miscellaneous Options:
-debug events display copious debugging information
-distribute-cache port
distributed pixel cache spanning one or more servers
-help print program options
-list type print a list of supported option arguments
-log format format of debugging information
-version print version information

Fix Word Document Cannot Open Error [Repair Assistance]

Word cannot open this document. The document might be in use, the document might not be a valid word document, or the file name might contain invalid characters.

If you’re receiving this error, send along your document to

[email protected]

and I will see if I can recover the text for you. If there is enough demand, I will build an online tool to recover documents from this error.

Filetypes receiving this error may include: doc, docx, msword, dot, dotx, rtf, docm, dotm

Amazon Seller Central Outage – 19 June 2017

Amazon has been experiencing an outage for Seller Central, today, 19 June 2017.

Sellers are reporting intermittent outages with seller tools such as the forums and FBA fee calculator, while the Seller Central platform seems to be completely down with sellers receiving the following messages:

Amazon Seller Central: Seller Central is Temporarily Unavailable, We apologize for the inconvenience. Our technical staff is working on a solution.
Amazon Seller Central: Seller Central is Temporarily Unavailable, We apologize for the inconvenience. Our technical staff is working on a solution.
Amazon Seller Central: Internal Error – The website is having a technical problem, please try again.

While Amazon’s AWS is showing no outages, Amazon still does not seem to have publically acknowledged the outage.


Common Firmware Environment CFE Commands

CFE> help
Available commands:

checkflash Check nand flash memory.
checkmem Check memory.
checkBC check the bootcode settings
show clocks Show current values of the clocks.
nvram NVRAM utility.
reboot Reboot.
tftpd Start TFTP server
flash Update a flash memory device
memtest Test memory.
f Fill contents of memory.
e Modify contents of memory.
d Dump memory.
u Disassemble instructions.
batch Load a batch file into memory and execute it
go Verify and boot OS image.
boot Load an executable file into memory and execute it
load Load an executable file into memory without executing it
save Save a region of memory to a remote file via TFTP
ping Ping a remote IP host.
arp Display or modify the ARP Table
ifconfig Configure the Ethernet interface
help Obtain help for CFE commands

For more information about a command, enter ‘help command-name’
*** command status = 0

Bitcoin Fork Plain English – UASF / BIP148 vs Segwit

SegWit is a movement among bitcoin miners to increase the block size from 1 MB to 2 MB (Megabytes). SegWit can be activated by the bitcoin miners collectively by the highest ratio of miners “voting” for it.

In addition to raising the blocksize, SegWit will also enable platforms to be built on top of the bitcoin network, giving it some of the malleability of the Ethereum network. The Bitcoin Lightning Network seeks to make transactions faster and more scalable on the blockchain, but will require SegWit to be activated by the miners. 95% of the miners must ‘signal’ their vote for Segwit in order to activate it.  As it stands, many miners are not signaling for SegWit activation – perhaps due to the change SegWit could bring to the ecosystem or due to the potential loss of profit from easier transaction transfers (and lower transaction fees).

UASF / BIP 148 is a blockchain user movement to change the bitcoin core code to deny blocks not signaling for SegWit. If all goes well, 100 block confirmations after BIP 148 implementation, SegWit will be force-activated on the bitcoin network. The force activation take place by bitcoin nodes and users signaling their support for BIP 148 and rejecting mined bitcoins without SegWit support. By activating via the nodes of the blockchain network (rather than the miners themselves activating it) the benefits of SegWit are brought to the blockchain without the need for 95% of miner support. Blockchain miners can also force this upgrade with 51% signaling support for BIP 148.

The problem: Before that 100th block is confirmed on the blockchain, there is a potential for the blockchain to diverge into two. With transactions and mining taking place separately on each blockchain two coins will be born out of one, akin to ethereum and ethereum classic.

According to reddit user luke-jr, we can avoid a chain split by:

  • 95% of hashrate locks-in segwit before August 1st. No chain split at all.
  • 51% of hashrate deploys BIP148 before August 1st. No chain split at all.
  • 51% of hashrate deploys BIP148 after August 1st. Chain split gets resolved.
  • Legacy miners are compelled by the economy to switch to BIP148 after Aug 1st. Chain split gets resolved.

It’s recommended to keep your coins in your own offline wallet during the change or to confirm with your online wallet their plans with your coins in the event of a split.




Cannot Sell This Reserved Instance

You may receive the following error message from AWS when trying to sell your reserved instance:

This issue is likely due to one of these two problems:

  • There was an error retrieving the selected reserved instances details
  • Failed to exchange reservation due to: Can’t exchange from non-convertible classic offering
  • You’re not a registered AWS instance seller, register here.
  • You’re trying to sell a Standard  EC2 Reserved Instance with No Available Zone Scope
    • Per Amazon’s Requirements: Standard EC2 Reserved Instances can only be listed in the Reserved Instance Marketplace, if they are purchased with an Availability Zone scope. Since capacity is not reserved with regional RIs, they cannot be sold on the Marketplace at this time.

If you’re a registered seller and you are still receiving this error, you may be stuck with this particular reserved instance.

Some notes about selling reserved instances:

  • Reserved instances can be sold after they have been active for at least 30 days and once AWS has received the upfront payment (if applicable).
  • There must be at least one month remaining in the term of the Reserved Instance you are listing.
  • You must have a US bank account to sell Reserved Instances on the Reserved Instance Marketplace. Support for non-US bank accounts will be coming soon.
  • You will retain the pricing and capacity benefit of your reservation until it’s sold and the transaction is complete.
  • Your company name (and address upon request) will be shared with the buyer for tax purposes.
  • A seller can set only the upfront price for a Reserved instance. The usage price and other configuration (e.g., instance type, Availability Zone, platform) will remain the same as when the Reserved instance was initially purchased.
  • The term length for a Reserved instance will be rounded down to the nearest month. For example, a reservation with 9 months and 15 days remaining will appear as 9 months on the Reserved Instance Marketplace.
  • You can sell up to $50,000 in Reserved instances per year. If you need to sell more Reserved instances, complete the form found here.
  • Reserved instances in the GovCloud region cannot be sold on the Reserved Instance Marketplace.
  • Reserved instances purchased as part of a tiering discount cannot be sold in the Reserved Instance Marketplace.


pdfsizeopt – AssertionError: Multivalent failed (status)

This error could mean you’re using a  newer version of Multivalent which no longer has the pdf tools bundled into it. You’ll need this older version with the proper tools.

Download: Multivalent.jar

Just as a note though, pdfsizeopt is a pretty old program that may not be able to handle newer pdfs and may do a poor job optimizing many others.


File “./pdfsizeopt”, line 30, in <module>
File “./lib/pdfsizeopt/main.py”, line 8081, in main
is_flate_ok=not do_decompress_flate)
File “./lib/pdfsizeopt/main.py”, line 7773, in Save
File “./lib/pdfsizeopt/main.py”, line 7691, in _RunMultivalent
assert False, ‘Multivalent failed (status)’
AssertionError: Multivalent failed (status)

/usr/bin/java -cp /users/lukerehmann/Multivalent.jar -Djava.awt.headless=true tool.pdf.Compress -nopagepiece -noalt -mon ADTTD_Product_Manual-Approved_Labeling_optimized.pdf
Exception in thread “main” java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: tool/pdf/Compress
Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: tool.pdf.Compress
at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(URLClassLoader.java:202)
at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(URLClassLoader.java:190)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:306)
at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Launcher.java:301)
at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(ClassLoader.java:247)